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Monday, January 10, 2011

United States History Final Semester ONE Sample Test/Study Guide

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 1. Which of the following BEST describes European society in the Middle Ages?
a. Literature promoted daring new ideas.
b. Most people lived in cities.
c. European society had extremes of poverty and wealth.
d. There was a renewed interest in learning.

____ 2. During the Renaissance, the most famous travel account came from
a. Prince Henry the Navigator. c. Prince Ferdinand.
b. Marco Polo. d. Queen Isabella.

____ 3. In which area did American Indians first grow maize, beans, and squash?
a. the American Midwest c. the Caribbean coast
b. central Mexico d. the American Northeast

____ 4. The political power of most American Indians was spread among
a. many local chiefs with limitless authority.
b. many local chiefs with limited authority.
c. the members of one ruling family.
d. only the shamans.

____ 5. Which European nation greatly expanded the slave trade in the 1400s and 1500s?
a. Portugal c. Italy
b. Spain d. England

____ 6. What effect did Marco Polo’s writings have on Europeans?
a. They hoped to remain isolationist.
b. They welcomed the Asians and their wealth to live in Europe.
c. They wanted to live seasonally like the Tartars, moving from one place to another.
d. They sought to involve Asians and their wealth in a renewed crusade against Islam.

____ 7. Which of the following was introduced to the Americas through the Columbian exchange?
a. shellfish c. horses
b. maize d. squash

____ 8. Most people in Europe during the Middle Ages were
a. commoners. c. merchants.
b. aristocrats. d. church leaders.

____ 9. Unlike the Spanish, the French
a. enslaved Native Americans.
b. took little land from Native Americans.
c. did not send missionaries to the Americas.
d. built large urban centers in their colonies.

____ 10. What was one effect of Bacon’s Rebellion?
a. Nathaniel Bacon successfully drove most Native Americans from Virginia.
b. The colonists at Jamestown fled and had to build a new settlement.
c. Governor Berkeley remained in Jamestown and reformed the government.
d. The colony’s leaders reduced farmers’ taxes and improved their access to frontier lands.

____ 11. The Protestant Reformation in Europe resulted in
a. the unification of Christian groups under one church.
b. popular resistance to colonization of new lands.
c. rivalry among many new religious denominations.
d. religious toleration of Indian practices in the Americas.

____ 12. The first enduring colonial town in what would become the United States was
a. St. Augustine. c. El Paso.
b. Santa Fe. d. Quivira.

____ 13. The French used Louisiana mainly as a
a. fishing ground. c. military base.
b. trading post. d. farming colony.

____ 14. The first permanent English colony in America was
a. Jamestown. c. Maryland.
b. Roanoke. d. Carolina.

____ 15. Why was the government in Massachusetts Bay Colony the most radical in colonial America?
a. Both women and men could serve in the government.
b. The male colonists elected a governor and assembly.
c. The government was guided by religious principles.
d. The colony’s constitution established a system of self-government.

____ 16. New York became an English colony when
a. Governor Stuyvesant left to conquer another European colony.
b. an English expedition forced Governor Stuyvesant to surrender.
c. the Duke of York left New Jersey to form a new colony.
d. the Duke of York gave land to Scottish settlers.

____ 17. Who wanted to make one of England’s southern colonies into a haven for English debtors?
a. Nathaniel Bacon c. James Oglethorpe
b. Lord Baltimore d. King Charles I

____ 18. Along with Quakers, what other religious groups settled in Pennsylvania?
a. Lutheran and Huguenot c. Huguenot and Anglican
b. Dutch Reformed and German Reformed d. Lutheran and German Reformed

____ 19. How did the Middle Colonies compare to the Northern and Southern Colonies?
a. The Middle Colonies were much more diverse than the Northern and Southern Colonies.
b. The Middle Colonies were more like the Southern Colonies.
c. The Middle Colonies were more like the Northern Colonies.
d. The Middle Colonies were much less diverse than the Northern and Southern Colonies.

____ 20. During the Middle Passage, slaves
a. became ill and died due to brutal conditions.
b. were well fed and well treated so they their sale price would be high.
c. taken from Africa to England.
d. taken from the West Indies to the colonies.

____ 21. Which region raised the majority of the staple crops in demand by Europeans?
a. New England c. the South
b. New France d. the Middle States

____ 22. In the mid-1700’s, slave labor in the Middle Colonies
a. was essential for the production of wheat.
b. existed but was not essential to the economy.
c. was nonexistent.
d. was outlawed.

____ 23. Why did New England’s population grow more during the 1600s than any other region?
a. Individuals banded together and formed compact, densely populated towns.
b. Many farmers immigrated to that region.
c. The region offered a balanced population and healthier natural living conditions.
d. Immigrants preferred this ethnically and culturally diverse area.

____ 24. Outside of New England, education
a. was available to everyone, regardless of income.
b. required sending children away to England.
c. was less widely available and children were taught in the home.
d. centered around the oldest and largest colleges.

____ 25. What happened after the Albany Plan of Union was drafted?
a. it was accepted by the colonists and rejected by the British
b. it was rejected by the colonist and heavily enforced by the British
c. the colonists united under British rule and began cooperating
d. the colonists rejected it and the British had second thoughts about it

Use the table and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following questions.

____ 26. How did the ideas described in the English Bill of Rights compare with those in the Magna Carta?
a. The English Bill of Rights voided the rights granted in the Magna Carta.
b. Many rights granted in the Magna Carta were restated in the English Bill of Rights.
c. The English Bill of Rights reinstated the council of nobles who advised the monarch that the Magna Carta outlawed.
d. The Magna Carta, not the English bill of Rights, required the monarch to get approval before levying a tax.

____ 27. One British principle of government valued by the American colonists was the
a. custom of having a ruling king or queen.
b. right to pay no tax unless it was levied by their own representatives.
c. freedom to wage violent protest if they thought it was necessary.
d. potential to have an aristocratic house in the legislature.

____ 28. Which of the following groups led violent protests against British taxation in the colonies?
a. Sons of Liberty c. Parliament
b. Virginia House of Burgesses d. Daughters of Liberty

____ 29. Who drafted the Declaration of Independence?
a. Thomas Paine c. Thomas Jefferson
b. George Washington d. John Adams

____ 30. Which of the following advantages was held by the British at the beginning of the war?
a. They had won the hearts and minds of the colonists.
b. The British army had more weapons and ships than the Continental Army.
c. British generals respected the fighting powers of their opponents.
d. All the soldiers fighting for the British were personally dedicated to the war.

____ 31. As a result of the Revolution, women in America
a. were granted the right to sign a contract. c. gained respect.
b. earned the right to own property. d. suffered abuse.

____ 32. In what way did the American Revolution affect other countries?
a. The practice of slavery spread throughout Europe.
b. Foreign governments attempted to punish Patriot leaders.
c. Countries tried to avoid the devastation of war.
d. Other republican groups fought to overthrow aristocratic governments.

Use the table and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following questions.

____ 33. What incident led Parliament to withdraw nearly all of the Townshend Acts?
a. the Boston Massacre
b. the Boston Tea Party
c. the Sons of Liberty boycott
d. convening of the First Continental Congress

____ 34. In which state was the Battle of Trenton fought?
a. Delaware c. New York
b. Pennsylvania d. New Jersey

____ 35. Under the Articles of Confederation, small states like Rhode Island, wielded as much power as large states such as Virginia, because
a. each state had one vote in Congress.
b. there was no executive branch of government.
c. representation was determined by a state’s population.
d. the legislature had no lawmaking power.

____ 36. The delegates at the Constitutional Convention met to
a. write a new Constitution. c. put down Shays’ rebellion.
b. dismantle the national government. d. revise the Articles of Confederation.

____ 37. What type of government did the Articles of Confederation create?
a. a strong, centralized government
b. an alliance of weak and dependent states
c. a loose confederation of strong state governments
d. a federal system with a bicameral legislature and a President

____ 38. Which principle provides for a system in which the government derives its power from the governed?
a. federalism c. popular sovereignty
b. limited government d. separation of powers

____ 39. One of Washington’s most important precedents was the
a. selection of a Vice President. c. signing of the Judiciary Act.
b. formation of a Cabinet. d. ending of the Supreme Court.

____ 40. Why did southern farmers oppose Hamilton’s plans for the economy?
a. They favored the charter of a Bank of the United States.
b. They wanted the Federal government to assume state debt.
c. They did not favor supporting the economy with agriculture.
d. They did not want to pay taxes to help the northern states.

____ 41. The political debates over the Whiskey Rebellion led to
a. an increase in federal and excise taxes.
b. an agreement to relocate the national capital.
c. the emergence of a two-party political system.
d. the disappearance of Democratic Societies.

____ 42. Which of the following was one of the policy changes Thomas Jefferson made when he became President?
a. He urged Congress to support the Alien and Sedition Acts.
b. He wanted to build up the nation’s army and navy.
c. He planned to retire the national debt by paying it down.
d. He used expensive displays to inspire the public’s respect.

____ 43. What was one of John Marshall’s important accomplishments as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court?
a. establishing the power of judicial review
b. appointing William Marbury a justice
c. ruling state laws to be superior to federal laws
d. allowing federal regulation of interstate commerce

____ 44. The embargo Jefferson declared against Britain in 1807
a. disrupted the British economy and closed British factories.
b. caused a substantial increase in profits for American merchants.
c. allowed American farmers to export goods to foreign markets.
d. angered American voters and led to increased Federalist support.

____ 45. What happened to the Federalist Party after the War of 1812?
a. They became popular with western farmers.
b. They joined with New England in seceding.
c. They were mocked as defeatists and traitors.
d. They played a lesser role in American politics.

____ 46. Why did railroads have a greater impact on American society than did canals and steamboats?
a. The government funded railroad construction.
b. People enjoyed riding on trains more than on steamboats.
c. Railroads cost less to build and trains provided faster transport.
d. Canals and steamboats did not connect farmers to cities.

____ 47. The cotton gin changed agriculture in the South by
a. simplifying the planting process. c. combining cotton and wheat farms.
b. making cotton the dominant crop. d. encouraging textile factory construction.

____ 48. Which of the following drew a line north of which any new states would be free states and south of which any new states would be slave states?
a. Missouri Compromise c. American System
b. Marbury v. Madison d. Monroe Doctrine

____ 49. What was one effect of the Erie Canal?
a. New York City became the nation’s greatest commercial center.
b. Buffalo became the East Coast’s travel hub.
c. The time it took to cross the Atlantic dropped by more than a week.
d. Farmland in New England increased in value.

____ 50. Machines changed workers’ lives by
a. decreasing the pace of work.
b. increasing the number of workers needed.
c. requiring more expertise and skill.
d. dividing labor into many small tasks.

____ 51. As agriculture became entrenched in the South,
a. planters built plantation schools to educate enslaved workers.
b. the South became too dependent on one crop, limiting development.
c. southern whites began to doubt the benefits of slavery.
d. entrepreneurs built new factories to meet rising consumer demand.

____ 52. Why did the United States government remove Native Americans from the Southeast in the 1830s?
a. Indian Territory offered more fertile land.
b. White Southerners wanted the Native Americans’ valuable land.
c. Native Americans refused to adapt to white American culture.
d. The Supreme Court ruled that the Native Americans had violated treaty obligations.

____ 53. The Whig Party formed in response to
a. the Tariff of Abominations.
b. the election of Andrew Jackson.
c. Andrew Jackson’s veto of the bill renewing the national bank.
d. the nullification crisis and South Carolina’s secession threat.

____ 54. Which of the following was an immediate cause of the Panic of 1837?
a. Congress lowered protective tariffs.
b. The first Bank of the United States closed.
c. President Jackson allocated too much money to the American System.
d. The federal government stopped accepting paper money for the purchase of land.

____ 55. Which of the following helped the North industrialize?
a. more workers c. less capital
b. better farmland d. fewer rivers

____ 56. Catholics were discriminated against during the Second Great Awakening because they
a. were wealthy and materialistic.
b. might choose their church’s leadership over their country’s.
c. took high-paying jobs from people of other faiths.
d. wanted the government to forbid doing business on the Sabbath.

____ 57. Supporters of the public school movement made arguments based on
a. religious references. c. economic realities.
b. transcendental ideas. d. utopian ideals.

____ 58. The temperance movement found its greatest success when it
a. promoted legal restrictions on alcohol. c. held public meetings to discuss alcohol.
b. published pamphlets and posters. d. encouraged people to pledge not to drink.

____ 59. The most successful Mormon settlements were in
a. New York. c. Missouri.
b. Ohio. d. Utah.

____ 60. Transcendentalists were known for
a. being loyal to the Pope. c. using nature as a teacher.
b. making high-quality crafts. d. following organized religions.

Directions: Use the excerpt and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question(s).

“I ask for, not at once no government, but at once a better government. . . . . Can there not be a government in which the majorities do not virtually decide right and wrong, but conscience?--in which majorities decide only those questions to which the rule of expediency is applicable? Must the citizen ever for a moment, or in the least degree, resign his conscience to the legislator? Why has every man a conscience then? I think that we should be men first, and subjects afterward. . . . .”
—Henry David Thoreau, Civil Disobedience, 1849

____ 61. For what kind of government did Thoreau advocate?
a. none c. better
b. limited d. larger

____ 62. Before the Second Great Awakening, women were expected to
a. vote and hold public office. c. take an active role in industry.
b. buy and sell property. d. play supporting roles in society.

____ 63. The Seneca Falls Convention was important because it
a. nominated candidates who would support women’s rights.
b. instituted specific reforms for women’s rights.
c. was the first Women’s Rights Convention in the United States.
d. demanded changes in women’s attire.

____ 64. Reformers worked to change schools by making them more
a. independent of state rules. c. demanding of their students.
b. accessible to everyone. d. economical in their operations.

____ 65. Which reformer is associated with prison issues?
a. Dorothea Dix c. Neal Dow
b. Catharine Beecher d. Horace Mann

Use the table and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question(s).

____ 66. Who assisted in the organization of the Seneca Falls Convention?
a. The Grimké sisters c. Lucretia Mott
b. Margaret Fuller d. Amelia Bloomer

____ 67. The women’s movement began when women saw parallels between their situation and that of
a. slaves. c. British royalty.
b. children. d. poor immigrants.

____ 68. Which of the following is an accurate statement about emigrants heading west in the mid-1800s?
a. Emigrants usually traveled alone.
b. Male and female emigrants usually traveled separately on foot and horseback.
c. Emigrants usually traveled along rivers, using rafts and ferries.
d. Emigrants usually traveled in wagon trains of 50 to 1,000 people.

____ 69. In the 1840s and 1850s, Mormons led by Brigham Young settled
a. in present-day Utah.
b. along the Santa Fe Trail.
c. in Illinois.
d. throughout present-day California and Oregon.

____ 70. What was the outcome of Polk’s expansionist policies in the Oregon Territory?
a. The Oregon Territory was split between the United States and Britain.
b. Mexico received part of the Oregon Territory.
c. Polk forced Britain to surrender its land in the Oregon Territory.
d. The United States and Britain warred over rights to the Oregon Territory.

____ 71. Who was President of the United States during the Mexican-American War?
a. Henry Clay c. James K. Polk
b. Zachary Taylor d. Andrew Jackson

____ 72. Journalist John J. O’Sullivan wrote an influential editorial about
a. the Sante Fe Trail. c. Mormons.
b. Manifest Destiny. d. Spanish presidios.

____ 73. The Mormons established a new colony called
a. New Spain. c. New Zion.
b. Fort Laramie. d. Walla Walla.

____ 74. During the California Gold Rush, about 25,000 laborers migrated to California from
a. China. c. South America.
b. Europe. d. Canada.

____ 75. People who believed in Manifest Destiny were known as
a. Mountain Men. c. missionaries.
b. expansionists. d. trappers.

____ 76. The state constitution drawn up by Californians at a convention in 1849 was notable for excluding
a. Native Americans. c. African Americans.
b. forty-niners. d. Mexicans.

____ 77. What was the purpose of the Wilmot Proviso?
a. to extend slavery into lands won from Mexico
b. to punish Mexico for going to war against the United States
c. to reverse the terms of the Gadsden Purchase
d. to ban slavery and other forms of servitude from lands won from Mexico

____ 78. In April 1836, General Santa Anna
a. seized power in Mexico City.
b. led an attack on the Alamo.
c. rebelled against Mexican rule.
d. was defeated at the Battle of San Jacinto.

____ 79. The events of “Bleeding Kansas” can be attributed to
a. the competition between farmers trying to settle the land.
b. the blistering speech of Charles Sumner on the Senate floor.
c. the competition of opposing political groups.
d. Preston Brook’s attack on Sumner.

____ 80. What event started “Bleeding Kansas”?
a. Border ruffians raided the anti-slavery town of Lawrence, Kansas.
b. John Brown carried out midnight executions of pro-slavery settlers.
c. Charles Sumner delivered a speech called “The Crime Against Kansas”.
d. Preston Brooks beat Charles Sumner unconscious with a cane.

Use the chart and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following questions.

____ 81. Which long-term cause directly influenced a short-term cause?
a. Lincoln’s election c. Fugitive Slave Act
b. Kansas-Nebraska Act d. Missouri Compromise

____ 82. James Buchanan promised to
a. abolish slavery in all states of the Union.
b. support slavery to avoid a civil war.
c. oppose slavery in the western territories.
d. end the agitation over the issue of slavery.

____ 83. What was Lincoln’s view on African Americans?
a. They were inferior and deserved be enslaved by whites.
b. They should have political and social equality with whites.
c. They were entitled to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
d. They should have the right to citizenship and to sue in the courts.

____ 84. In Abraham Lincoln’s inaugural address, he declared that
a. he would abolish slavery.
b. no state can lawfully leave the Union by its own action.
c. there would be a war.
d. the North would avenge the attack on Fort Sumter.

Use the chart and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following questions.

____ 85. How was the issue of slavery decided in the territory ceded by Mexico?
a. Congress declared the territory free.
b. Residents exercised popular sovereignty.
c. The new states’ constitutions permitted slavery.
d. Mexico required that the territory remain free.

____ 86. What was one outcome of the Compromise of 1850?
a. Slavery was banned in Washington, D.C.
b. Stephen A. Douglas lost prestige.
c. Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act.
d. Northern and Southern tensions immediately increased.

____ 87. Why did the Confederate States of America write a constitution that prohibited importing slaves from other countries?
a. to appease President Lincoln c. to win the support of Britain and France.
b. to appease the small southern farmers d. to win the support of Italy and Germany

____ 88. The agrarian South was at a disadvantage against the
a. European-influenced North. c. industrialized North.
b. more liberal North. d. colder North.

____ 89. Before the Emancipation Proclamation, enslaved African Americans who were captured by Union forces were often treated as
a. contraband. c. spies.
b. the militia. d. servants.

Use the table and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following questions.

____ 90. How could Northern advantages primarily be categorized?
a. martial c. strategic
b. industrial d. psychological

____ 91. How did the South attempt to compensate for its disadvantages?
a. Southern military leaders devised the Anaconda Plan to end the war quickly.
b. Confederate troops remained within their own territory at all times.
c. Southern leaders approached foreign governments for aid.
d. The South quickly began building factories and railroad lines.

____ 92. What happened to the South’s economy during the Civil War?
a. It improved. c. It deteriorated.
b. It remained stable. d. It declined and then grew.

Use the table and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following questions.

____ 93. What was the basis of the South’s economy after the Civil War?
a. factories c. slave trade
b. banks d. agriculture

____ 94. How did the Civil War affect states’ rights?
a. The supremacy of the federal government over the states was firmly established.
b. States gained more power in determining their own laws.
c. The balance of power between federal and states governments was unchanged.
d. States lost all rights of self-determination.

____ 95. After the Battle of Gettysburg, the South
a. never again fought on Union soil. c. surrendered immediately.
b. mounted one last march into the North. d. refused to retreat.

____ 96. What event led to the fall of the Confederate capital, Richmond, Virginia?
a. Lincoln’s assassination c. Lee’s retreat from Petersburg
b. Grant’s siege at Vicksburg d. Sherman’s march through Georgia

____ 97. Where did Lee finally surrender to Grant?
a. Appomattox Court House c. Petersburg
b. Richmond d. Washington, D.C.

____ 98. What is one advantage that helped the North to achieve victory in the Civil War?
a. a warmer climate
b. more technological resources
c. better military leadership when the war started
d. growing sympathy for southern culture

____ 99. Which side had a more difficult time rebuilding after the Civil War?
a. the South c. the South and North struggled equally
b. the North d. the South and North both rebuilt easily

____ 100. Some abolitionists criticize Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation because
a. they knew it did not specifically free all enslaved people.
b. they wanted it sent to European countries.
c. they wanted it to give enslaved people full rights of citizenship.
d. they wanted it to bring an end to the Civil War.

1 comment:

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